M. Lazar, Zuazua E.. Eigenvalue bounds for the Gramian operator of the heat equation (2023)
Abstract. This paper is concerned with the eigenvalue decay of solution operators to operator Lyapunov equations, a relevant topic in the context of model reduction for parabolic control problems. We mainly focus on the Gramian operator, which arises in the context of control and observation of heat processes in infinite time, which is normally the first step towards observations in a finite time horizon.
By improving existing energy and observability estimates for parabolic equations, we obtain both upper and lower bounds on the convergence rate of the eigenvalues of the Gramian operator towards zero. Both bounds follow the same polynomial decay rate, up to a multiplicative constant, which ensures their optimality. This confirms the slow decay of the eigenvalues and limits the efficiency of model reduction. The theoretical findings are supported by numerical results.