Trélat E., Zhang C., and Zuazua E. Optimal shape design for 2D heat equations in large time Pure and Applied Functional Analysis DOI:
Abstract: In this work, we study the steady-state (or periodic) exponential turnpike property of optimal control problems in Hilbert spaces. The turnpike property, which is essentially due to the hyperbolic feature of the Hamiltonian system resulting from the Pontryagin maximum principle, reflects the fact that, in large control time horizons, the optimal state and control and adjoint state remain most of the time close to an optimal steady-state. A similar statement holds true as well when replacing an optimal steady-state by an optimal periodic trajectory. To establish the result, we design an appropriate dichotomy transformation, based on solutions of the algebraic Riccati and Lyapunov equations. We illustrate our results with examples including linear heat and wave equations with periodic tracking terms.