Abstract. Let (M,g) be a closed Riemannian manifold. The aim of this work is to prove the Lebeau-Robbiano spectral inequality for a positive elliptic pseudo-differential operator E(x,D) on M, of order ν>0, in the Hörmander class Ψνρ,δ(M). In control theory this has been an open problem prior to this work. As an application of this fundamental result, we establish the null-controllability of the (fractional) heat equation associated with E(x,D). The sensor ω⊂M in the observability inequality is an open subset of M. The obtained results (that are, the corresponding spectral inequality for an elliptic operator and the null-controllability for its diffusion model) extend in the setting of closed manifolds, classical results of the control theory, as the spectral inequality due to Lebeau and Robbiano and their result on the null-controllability of the heat equation giving a complete picture of the subject in the setting of closed manifolds. For the proof of the spectral inequality we introduce a periodization approach in time inspired by the global pseudo-differential calculus due to Ruzhansky and Turunen.